Tuesday, 9 October 2007

memorendum Regarding places of freedom struggle in Pakistan

Professor Chaman Lal Dated:-8th June 2007
Centre of Indian Languages (SLL&CS)
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi -110067 (INDIA)

Honorable President of India
Rashtarpati Niwas New Delhi
Subject: Regarding places of freedom struggle in Pakistan.
Respected Sir,
I had been to Lahore and some surrounding areas in this April, in connection with an international seminar on Dr. B.R.Ambedkar. Since I am keenly involved with the study of national freedom movement, particularly about the role of Bhagat Singh, I was keen to visit places related to our great national martyr. After visiting some of the places like Bradlaugh Hall, the headquarter of freedom movement in pre-partition Punjab, Phansighat a part of Central Jail Lahore, which now had been demolished and Shadman square come up at the place. This was the place where apart from Bhagat Singh; nearly hundred patriots like Gadar party hero Kartar Singh Sarabha had been executed. I also visited the house in Chak no. 105. Bange in Lyallpur, now called Faislabad district, where Bhagat Singh was born. Some photographs of these places I am attaching along with the details of my visit.
In the background of above, I make an earnest request to you and Government of India to approach Government of Pakistan to declare some of these places as national monuments of Pakistan, as the freedom struggle against British colonialism, prior to partition, had been fought jointly by the patriotic people, now divided into three different countries. I wish to draw particular attention towards:
1. Phansighat of erstwhile Central jail Lahore—after the demolition of jail, this area had been developed into Shadman Colony and Shadman square in the colony was the exact location of Phansighat. Many Indian and Pakistani civilians together hold memorial meetings at this location on 23rd March every year to pay respects to the memory of the martyrs. Many members of Indian Parliament have also participated in these programs along with Kuldip Nayar and Rajinder Sachar like people. F. E. Chaudhary, 98 year first photo journalist of Pakistan, who was allowed to photograph the phansighat and other parts of jail, prior to demolition, is still alive with the file of photographs. Government of India should approach Government of Pakistan to erect a suitable memorial at this location in memory of patriots of anti colonial freedom struggle against British colonialism, which include many Muslims belonging to the present geographical area of Pakistan as well. Pakistani people and society in general also wishes to have such memorial and many times some groups of Lahore have raised this demand from their Government. It would be in the fitness of the things, if in the centenary year of Bhagat Singh’s birth, Indian and Pakistani Government could agree to erect such memorial at Shadman chowk or phansighat,, which would have support of Pakistani people as well.
2. . The same way, memorial or at least a plaque should be put up at the house in Chak no. 105, Bange in Faislabad district. In fact people of Pakistan, on their own have put up a signboard with Bhagat Singh’s picture on the main road leading to his village. Some good smirtan has even put up Bhagat Singh town as mark of respect for the martyr. I was told that lot of Indians used to visit the place prior to 1965, before the deterioration of state relations between two countries. Now also lot many people wish to visit, particularly among Sikh pilgrimage going to Nankana sahib, as the place is not very far from Nankana Sahib. This village should also be got included in the list of places allowed to be visited by Sikh pilgrimage visa holders.
3. Bradlaugh all is in dilapidated condition, though the old grandeur of building can be observed. It still has the plaque of foundation stone being laid by eminent nationalist Surender Nath Sen in 1900. This hall needs to be protected as monument or even as heritage building. This would be in fitness of the things to approach Pakistan Government with the due respect to state sovereignty to take care of this historic building, which had National College in its vicinity from 1922 to 1926, where Bhagat singh was a student and which was established by Lala Lajpat Rai. In fact Bhagat singh and his group also used this building as semi-office for their activities.
4. There are other buildings like Dwarka Dass Library, located in Lajpat Rai Bhavan, which now house Police fingerprint bureau or S.S.P office road, in front of which Saundras was killed by Bhagat singh. A request should be made to Government of Pakistan to at least put plaques for information at those locations. During 150th year celebration of first war of independence, which is being celebrated in Pakistan as well, birth centenary year of Bhagat singh, which many non-Govt. organizations are celebrating in Pakistan as too, it would be better if India and Pakistan could come closer, both at Governmental and non-Governmental level, to share the common cultural heritage of thousands of years, through having common approach towards anti colonial freedom struggle against British colonialism.
I hope and wish that due attention would be paid to the issues raised in this letter and all necessary steps would be taken to get some of the buildings protected with historic sign marks.
With true regards
Chaman Lal
(Editor-Complete Documents of Bhagat singh)

Copy to Prime Minister of India and heads of Political Parties

Tel. 011-26704656 (Mob.-09868774820 Email: - chamanlal1947@yahoo.co.in

calender of martayers

2.1.1939- Shahid Hazara Singh Ooty Train Case.
5.1.1928- Maulvi Barkat Ullah Khan (Bhoopal) Ghadr party.
11.1.1928- Shahid Mewa Singh (Lopoke, Amritsar) Hanged in Vancouver , Canada.
17 & 18.1.1872- 65 Namdhari blown off with cannons at Malerkotla.
01 was killed with sword.
19.1. – Shahid Sewa Singh Thikriwala (Patiala Jail).
12.1.1931.- Malti Malapa Balseti, Jagan Nath, C. Shinde, Sh. Krishan Sharda, Abdul Russul, Qurban Hussain, Hanged in Yerwada Jail. Accused in Martial Law after Salt Satyagraha.
12.1.1934- Shahid (Master) Surya Sen, Shahid Tarkeshwar Dastidar (Then Bengal, Now Bangala Desh), Chittagong Armoury Raid case, Hanged.
20.1.1916- Shahid Bhola Nath Chatterji while attempting to bring weapons from German.

10.2.1916- Shahid Sohan Lal Pathak (Patti, Amritsar, now Taran Tarn) Ghadr Party Hanged in Mandley (Burma)
15.2.1915- Singapore Mutiny- Ghadr Party- 5th Light infantry & 36 Punjabi Pulton Revolt. 2 Hanged. 38 executed by firing squad.
15.2.1916- 60 hanged after Singapore Mutiny, 40 other were killed in encounter- Ghadr Party.
16.2.1933- Shahid Kalipad Mukherji (Dhaka Jail) Civil Disobiendience Movement.
17.2.1883 – Shahid Vasudev Balwant Fadke, rebel leader of Maharashtra (Adan Jail).
19.2.1915 – Date fixed by Ghadr Party for general rising.
20.2.1921 – 86 got martyrdom in Nankana Sahib Firing.
21.2.1910 – Shahid Varinder Nath Das Gupta Hanged in Alipur (Bengal) Conspiracy Case.
27.2.1926 – (Holi) Six Babar Akalis were hanged in Lahore Central Jail.
1. Jathedar Kishan Singh (Waring, Jalandhar)
2. Karam Singh (Manko, Jalandhar)
3. Nand Singh (Ghurial, Jalandhar)
4. Babu Santa Singh (Shoti Harion, Ludhiana)
5. Dalip Singh (Dhamian, Hoshiarpur)
6. Dharam Singh (Hayatpur, Hoshiarpur)
27.2.1931- Shahid Chander Shekhar Azad- Police encounter in Alfred Park (Now Azad Park) Alahabad.


1.3.1924- Shahid Gopi Mohan Saha (Hanged in Calcutta)
8.3.1915- Shahid Russul. Shahid Imtiaz Ali, Shahid Ramnudin- Ghadr Party – Singapore- died with bullet shots.
13.3.1942- Sh. Satynand Puri, Giani Pritam Singh, Shri Akram, Shri Neelkanth Aiyar- I.N.A. (Died in Air Crash)
21.3.1916- Havaldar Jal Sawar Singh Hanged in Delhi Jail (Ghadr Party)
21.3.1923- Jaito Morcha- 19 killed 28 injured.
23.3.1939- Lahore- Kissan Morcha – 6 killed.
23.3.1915- Subedar Dadu Khan, Zamadar Chishti Khan, Havaldar Abdul Gani, Havaldar Rehmat Ali (Hanged in Singapore) Ghadr Party.
23.3.1917- Dr. Mathura Singh (Hanged in Lahore) Ghadr Party.
23.3. 1931- Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev (Hanged in Lahore)- Saunders murder case.


13.4.1919- Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
(Names and addresses of 406 martyrs are published in Punjabi book “Hindustan Di Azadi Di Larai wich Punjab- Bhag Pehla- Ram Singh Majitha).
15.4.1931- Shahid Subodh Dey (in Jail) Chittagong Armoury Raid.
18.4.1898- Shahid Chapekar- Hanged in Yervada Jail.
18.4.1930- Attack on Govt Armoury Chittagong (Then Bengal, now Bangla Desh) started at 10.30 AM.
20.4.1915- Arjan Singh Khukhrana (Ferozepur, now Moga) hanged in Lahore Jail- Ghadr Party.
22.4.1930- Martyrs of Chittagong Armoury Raid.
1. Hari Gopal Baul 2. Tripura Sen
3. Nirmal Lala 4. Bidhu Bhushan Bhattacharya
5. Naresh Ray 6. Sasanka Dutta
7. Madhu Sudan Dutta 8. Pulin Bikash Ghosh
9. Jiten Das Gupta 10. Prabhas Baul.
23.4.1930- Shahid Mati Lal Kanungo Bullet fire.
23.4.1930 – Revolt of Garhwal regiment sepoys at Peshawar, refused to fire on unarmed Satyagrahis.
24.4.1930 – 1, Ardhendu Dastidar 2. Amrendra Nandi Died in Police encounter in Chittagong Armoury Raid case.
26.4.1915 – Lains Dafedar Ishar Singh, Quarter Master Biba Singh, Shahid Hazara Singh, Sepoy Phoola Singh – Court Martial at Meerut (Hanged in Meerut Jail) – Ghadr Party.
28.4.1930 – Himangsu Bimal Sen- Died in police encounter in Chittagong Armoury Raid Case.

1.5.1908 – Shahid Prafful Kumar Chaki- police encounter (comrade of Khudi Ram Bose).
1.5.1933 – Shahid Roshan Lal Mehra (Amritsar) Died in bomb explosion (Madras Revolutionary group)
3.5.1931 – Shahid Jagdish Lal – police encounter in Shalimar Bagh Lahore.
4.5.1933 – Shahid Gobind Ram Verma- died in bomb explosion (Madras Revolutionary Group).
8.5.1899 – Shahid Chapekar – Hanged (Maharashtra) (Chapekar brother movement)
8.5.1915 - Master Amir Chand, Bhai Bal Mukad, Avad Bihari – Hanged in Delhi Jail viceroy Hardinge Bomb case.
10.5.1915 – Basant Viswas – Hanged- Viceroy Hardinge Bomb Case.
10.5.1857 – Beginning of 1857 Great Revolt.
10.5.1899 – Shahid Ranade (Maharashtra) Hanged. (Chapekar brothers movement).
14.5.1934 – Shahid Baikunth Shukal (village Jalalpur Pachhmi, distt Vaishali, police station Lal Ganj, Bihar) Hanged in Gaya Central Jail, Bihar (Comrade of Bhagat Singh).
Phaninder Ghose (Chief approver, L.C.C)., murder case.
(Note :-Chanderma Singh was sentenced life imprisonment in this case.)
17.5.1933 – Shahid Mahabir Singh, died with force feeding during hunger strike in Cellular Jail Andemans.
26.5.1933 – Shahid Man Krishan Namdas died in Cellular Jail Andemans during hunger strike (Bengali Revolutionary).
28.5.1933 – Shahid Mohit Mohan Metra died in Cellular Jail Andemans during hunger strike (Bengali Revolutionary).
28.5.1930 – Shahid Bhagwati Charan Vohra, died due to bomb explotion at the bank of Ravi near Lahore (comrade of Bhagat Singh and husband of Durga Bhabi.

2.6.1917 – Shahid Atma Ram, Hanged in Shanghai (China) Ghadr Party.
8.6.1924 – Shahid Babar Wariyam Singh Dhuga- police encounter in Chak no- 54 Lallyal pur.
9.6.1931 – Shahid Hari Kishan Sarhadi- Hanged in Mianwali Jail (Comrade of Bhagat Singh)
10.6.1917 – Shahid Jawand Singh(Nangal Kalan, Hoshiarpur)
18.6.1916 – Bir Singh (Bahowal, Hoshiarpur, Ishar Singh (Dhudike,Moga), Ranga Singh (Khurdpur, Jalandhar), Roor Singh (Talwandi Dosanjh, Moga), Uttam Singh (Hans, Ludhiana) Hanged in Lahore centeral Jail- Ghadr Party.
20.6.1935 – Shahid Manender Banerji- died during hunger strike in Fatehgarh Jail (H.S.R.A.)

18.7.1927 – 14 men, women and children died in police firing at village Kothala, Malerkotla State.
4.7.11936 – Shahid Hazara Singh, Tata Nagar.
7.7.1931 – Shahiid Dinesh Gupta, hanged (Bengali revolutionary)
15-7-193 - Babar Rattan Singh (Rurki, Nawan Shahr)- died in police encounter.
20.7.1910 – Shahid Sawarn Singh (Uncle of Shahid Bhagat Singh) died in central jail Lahore, Peasant’s movement, Pagri Sambhal Jatta movement.
31.7.1940 –Shahid Udham Singh (Sunam, Sangroor) Hanged in Pentinville Jail London.
31.7.1857 – Britishers filled a well at village Ajnala (Amritsar) with dead bodies of rebel sepoys.

4.8.1931 – Shahid Ram Kishan Viswas, Hanged in Alipore Jail (Bengal), Chittagong Armoury Raid Case.
5.8.1871 – Four Namdharies of village Pitho (Bathinda) were hanged at Raikot (Ludhiana).
9.8.1915 – Atma Singh (Thathikhara, Amritsar), Kala Singh (Jagatpur, Amritsar), Chanan Singh (Boor Chand- Amritsar), Harnam Singh (Thathikhara, Amritsar) Walla Bridge Case- Ghadr Party.
9.8.1942 – Beginning of Quit India Movement.
11.8.1942 – Shahid Khudi Ram Bose, Hanged, Mujaferpur Bomb Case.
12.8.1915 – Shahid Banta Singh (Sanghwal, Jalandhar), Hanged in Lahore Jail, Ghadr Party.
12.8.1915 – Shahid Boota Singh (Akalgarh, Ludhiana) Ghadr Party.
15.8.1955 – Shahid Karnail Singh (Isru, Ludhiana) died with bullet fire. Goa libration movement.
17.8. 1909 – Shahid Madan Lal Dhingra, Hanged in Pentonville Jail, London – Killed Sir Kurzon Wylle.
19.8.1916 – Harnam Singh (Kahri, Hoshiarpur), Chelia Ram (Sahnewal, Ludhiana), Wasava Singh (Wara, Hoshiarpur), Naranjan Singh (Sangatpur, Ludhiana), Pala Singh (Sherpur, Patiala State ), Narain Singh (Ballo, Bathinda) Mandley Burma Conspiracy Case, Hanged in Mandley Jail- Ghadr Party.
21.8.1922 – Beginning of Guru Ka Bag Morcha.

1.9.1923 – Babar Karam Singh Editor (Daulatpur, Jalandhar, now Nawan Shahr), Babar Udai Singh (Ramgarh Jhungian, Hoshiarpur), Babar Mohinder Singh (Pandori Ganga Singh, Hoshiarpur) Babar Bishan Singh (Mangat, Jalandhar)- Encounter at village Babeli.
1.9.1932 – Abdul Rashid, Hanged in Paeshawar Jail (N.B.S.).
3.9.1915 – Martyrs of 23rd Cavalary- court martialled at Dagshai (Himachal Pardesh) Hanged in Ambala Jail,
1. Dafedar Lachhman Singh (Chuslewar, Amritsar)
2. Dafedar Wadhawa Singh (Rudiwal, Amritsar)
3. Bhag Singh (Rudiwal, Amritsar)
4. Mota Singh (udiwal, Amritsar)
5. Tara Singh (Rudiwal, Amritsar)
6. Inder Singh (Jeo Bala, Amritsar)
7. Inder Singh (Shahbazpur, Amritsar)
8. Buta Singh (Kasel, Amritsar)
9. Gujjar Singh (Lahuke, Amritsar)
10. Jetha Singh (Lahuke, Amritsar)
11. Budh Singh(Dhotian, Amritsar)
12. Abdula (Tupral, Gujranwal).
9.9.1915 – Chitapriya Choudhary – (Calcutta), police encounter.
10.9.1915 – Jatinder Mukerji (Calcutta) Police encounter.
13.9.1915 – Judgement of Lahore conspiracy case announced (Ghadr Party):24 revolutionists were awarded death sentence. Later on death sentence of 17 revolutionists was commuted to transportation for life.
13.9.1929 - Jatinder Nath Das died in Lahore Jail during hunger strike (H.S.R.A.)
24.9.1932 – Priti Lata Waddader- Police encounter (Comrade of Master Surya Sen).
29.9.1914 – Budge-Budge Ghat (Calcutta) Massacre
1. Shihan Singh s/o Sewa Singh of Kot Datta P.S. Sirhali, Distt. Amritsar.
2. Arjan Singh s/o Lakha Singh of Dhadde Distt. Jalandhar.
3. Inder Singh s/o Vir Singh of Sidhwan, P.S. Rahon, Distt, Jalandhar.
4. Narain Singh s.o Bachan Singh of Longedeva, P.S. Zira, Distt. Ferozepur.
5.Lachhman Singh s/o Deva Singh of Mano Chahal, P.S. Taran Taran Distt. Amritsar.
6. Rur Singh s/o Labh Singh of Kaonke Distt. Amritsar.
7. Bhajan Singh s/o Anokh Singh of Rajiana, P.S. Dhanaula, Nabha State.
8. Chanan Singh s/o Kahan Singh of Wazidke, Barnala.
9. Shiv Singh s/o Mehtab Singh of Nanke, P.S Tarn Taran , Distt. Amritsar.
10. Rur Singh s/o Sher Singh of Langiana, P.S Bajewala, Distt. Ferozepur.
11. Kumar Singh s/o Ram Singh of Pakhri, Faridkot.
12. Ishwar Singh s/o Jiwa Singh of Manake Sidhu, P.S Jagraon, Distt. Ludhiana.
13. Inder Singh of Manuke, died by Drowning.
14. Smt. Rukmani Kanta Mazumdar (Bengal).
15. Deen Bandhu Pande (Oriya).
16. Bhagat Singh s/o Hira Singh of Rajiana, P.S. Moga, Distt. Hoshiarpur.
17. Meeta Singh s/o Bishan Singh of Lil Majri, P.S. Raikot. Distt. Ludhiana.
18. Kehar Singh s/o Jhanda Singh of Khemoana, P.S. Raikot, Distt. Ludhiana.
19. Rattan Singh s/o Batan Singh of Jamsher, Distt Jalandhar.
20. Tehal Singh s/o Ganda Singh of Ramvela, P.S. Sirhali, Distt. Amritsar. (Died by drowning).

1.10.1918 – Satyanand Sarkar, died in police custody (Bengal Revolutionary)
7.10.1918 – Sushil Chander Lehri, Hanged in Midnapur ,Bengal (Banaras Conspiracy case.
25.10.1923 – Babar Dhana Singh (Behbalpur, Hoshiarpur) Bomb explosion at village Mananhana, Hoshiarpur, killed five police men, two police men Horton and Jackson (police superintendants) were severely wounded died later on.

5.11.1945 – Trial case started on I.N.A. patriots in Red Fort Delhi.
10.11.1908 – Kanai Lal Dutt- hanged in Manipur central Jail.
16.11.1915 – Seven Ghadrities hanged in Lahore Central Jail (L.C.C.)
Kartar Singh (Sarabha, Ludhiana), Vishnu Ganesh Pingle (Talegaon Dhamtera, Poona, Maharashtra), Jagat Singh (Sursingh, Amritsar), Harnam Singh (Bhatti Goraya, Sialkot), Surain Singh s/o Boor Singh (Gilwali, Amritsar), Surain Singh s/o Ishar Singh (Gilwali, Amritsar), Bakshish Singh (Gilwali, Amritsar).
21.11.1908 – Satinder Nath (Bengal) Hanged.
22.11.1915 – Narnder Das Gupta, Manoranjan Sen Gupta, Hanged in Balasour Jail.
25.11.1944 – Raj Narain Mishar _ Quit India Movement, Chanda Singh (Waraich, Ludhiana), Dhian Singh (Bangasi, Ludhiana)- Died in police encounter at Pherushar.
26.11.1871 – Suba Giani Rattan Singh (Mandi Kalan, Bathinda) Sant----------- Publically hanged on bohar tree infront of Ludhiana jail.
30.11.1918 – Kanta Chakarvarti – died in police custody.

4.12.1924 – Jyotish Chander (Bairampur, Bengal)
8.12.1930 – Shahid Sudhir Gupta , attacked on Writers building, Calcutta.
13.12.1930 – Benoy Basu, attacked on Writers building, Calcutta.
15.12.1913 – Kumud Bandhu Bhattacharya Egra Midnapur- died in police custody.
17.12.1927 – Rajender Lehiri- Hanged in Gonda Jail (Kakori Case)
18.12.1932 – Jeetu Chetka-
19.12.1927 – Ram Parsad Bismil- hanged in Gorakhpur Jail (Kakori case)
19.12.1927 – Ashfaq Ullah Khan – hanged in Faizabad Jail (Kakori case)
21.12.1927 – Raushan Singh Kakori case – Naini Jail.
27.12.1921 – Genda Lal Dixit (Manipur bomb case)
29.12.1919 – Makhan Lal Ghose – Hazari Bag Jail.

the popularity of bhagat singh and its expression in literarture

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^?kksM+h*( iatkch Hkk’kk dk yksdxhr :i gS] ftlesa nwYgk ckjkr tkus vkSj nqYgu ykus ds fy, pyrs le; ?kksM+h ij p<+rk gS vkSj mlds ihNs ^ljokyk*] tks vDlj mldk NksVk HkkbZ gksrk gS] og cSBrk gSA Hkxr flag ds lanHkZ esa ^?kksM+h* yksdxhr jpus okys yksd dfo;ksa us ^ekSr* dks Hkxr flag dh nqYgu :Ik esa fpro.k djrs gq, Hkxr flag dks pko ls viuh nqYgu dks izkIr djus dk fcac l`ftr fd;k x;k gSA ^ekSr* ;kuh ^Qkalh* ij p<+rs tkus oDr Hkxr falag dk nwYgs dh rjg ?kksM+h ij p<+ dj tkuk yksdekul dk ,slk fcac gS] ftlus Hkxr flag dks lfn;ksa rd ds fy, yksdekul esa ,slk izfrf’Br dj fn;k gS fd mldk gky esa mHkj dj vk;k oSpkfjd i{k mls vkSj lq<`<+ rks dj ldrk gS] ysfdu ml fcac dks cny ugha ldrkA
iatkch ¼xqjeq[kh o Qkjlh & nksuksa fyfi;ksa esa½ 1931 ds vklikl feyrs&tqyrs “kCnksa okyh Hkh dbZ ?kksfM+;ka NihaaA “kk;j esyk jke ^rk;j* o efgUnj flag lsBh ve`rljh dh ^?kksfM+;kas* ds dbZ fgLls feyrs&tqyrs gSaA “kk;j Rkk;j us 23 ekpZ 1932 dks ykgkSj esa Hkxr flag dh “kgknr ds ,d cjl ckn ;gka izLrqr ^?kksM+h* dks rkaxs ij p<+dj cktkj esa xk;kA bl ?kksM+h] laca/kh yanu fLFkr fganh&iatkch ys[kd xkSre lpnso us ^gq.k* ¼tuojh&vizSy 2007½ vad esa fnypLi fdLlk c;ku fd;k gSA xkSre lpnso ds vuqlkj mlds llqj jke yqHkk;k pku.kk Lora=rk lsukuh Fks vkSj 1998 esa la;ksx ls xkSre dh HksaV bl ?kksM+h ds “kk;j rk;j ls gks x;h] tks ml le; lkS cjl ds gks pqds Fks] ysfdu ml mez esa Hkh mUgksaus ?kksM+h iwjh ;kn Fkh vkSj xkSre us VsifjdkMaZj esa rk;j dh ;knsa vkSj ?kksM+h mUgha ds Loj esa fjdkMZ dhA blh ?kksM+h dsk ^yhtsaM vkQ Hkxr flag* fQYe esa Hkh xhr ds :i esa bLrseky fd;k x;kA
Hkxr flag “krkCnh o’kZ o mudh “kgknr ds eghus esa bl ?kksM+h dk nsoukxjh fyI;arj.k o fgUnh esa HkkokFkZ ;gka izLrqr fd;k tk jgk gSA lkFk gh fgUnh esa gh cgqpfpZr jgh fdrkc ^ykgkSj dh Qkalh* ;kfu ^vktknh ds rjkus* ls dfo ceyV dh Hkxrflag dh Qkalh ds fnuksa esa gh jfpr ,d fganh dforkA
?kksM+h Hkxr flag “kghn
vkoks uh HkS.kksa jy xkoh, ?kksfM+;ka
ta¥k rs gksbZ , fr;kj os gka]
ekSr dqM+h uwa ijuko.k pfYy;k
ns”kHkxr ljnkj os gkaA
¼vkvks cguksa fey dj ?kksfM+;ka xk,a
Ckkjkr rks pyus ds fy, rS;kj gSA
ekSr nqygu dks C;kgus ds fy,
ns”kHkDr ljnkj pyk gSA½
Qkalh ns r[krs okyk [kkjk c.kk ds]
cSBk rwa pkSdM+h ekj os gka
ga>wvka ns ik.kh Hkj ukgoks xM+ksyh
ygw nh jÙkh eksgyh /kkj os gka
¼Qkalh ds r[rs dks iVjh cuk dj
rqe pkSdM+h ekj dj cSBs gksA
yksVs esa vkalqvksa ds ty dks Hkj dj ugkvks[1]
ygw dh yky eksVh /kkj cuh gSA
Qkalh nh Vksih okyk eqdV c.kk ds]
flgjk rwa c)k >kyjnkj os gkaA
taMh rs oM~
lcj nh ekj ryokj os gkaA
¼Qkalh dh Vksih okyk eqdqV cukdj
rqeus >kyjksa okyk lsgjk iguk gS
Tkksj tq+Ye dh taMh[2] dks rqeus
lcz dh ryokj ls dkV fn;k gSA
jktxq: rs lq[knso ljckys
Pkf<+;k rs rwa gh fopdkj os gka
okx QMkbZ rSFkksa HkS.kka us yS.kh
HkS.kka nk jf[k;k m/kkj oss gkaaA
¼jktxq: o lq[knso rqEgkjs ^ljckys cus gSA vkSj rqe muds chp esa p<+dj cSBs gksA
?kksM+h dh yxke idM+kus dk “kzxqu
Rkqeus cguksa ls m/kkj j[kk gS½
gjh fd”ku rsjk cf.k;k os lka
iSaarh djksM+ rsjs tak¥kh os ykfM;k
dbZ iSny rs dbZ lokj oss gka
¼gfjfd”ku[3] rqEgkjk lk
Rkqe nksuksa ,d gh }kj ij igaqps gks
vkss nwYgs rqEgkjs iSaarhl djksM+[4] ckjkrh gSa
dqN iSny o dqN lokfj;ksa ij gSaA
dkyhvka iq”kkdka ikds ta¥k tq rqj ibZa]
rkbj oh gksb;k , frvkj os gkaA
¼dkyh iks”kkdsa igu dj ckjkr tc py iM+h rks rk;j Hkh rS;kj gks x;kA
izksQslj] Hkkjrh; Hkk’kk dsUnz] tokgjyky usg: fo”ofo|ky;] u;h fnYyh&110067

[1] ?kksM+h ij p<+us ls igys nwYgs dks ugyk;k tkrk gSA
[2] nwYgk ?kksM+h ij p<+ dj xkao ds ckgj taM ds o`{k dks ryokj ls dkVrk gS] ;g Hkh bl jhfr dk fgLlk gS½
[3] gfjfd”ku dks iatkc fo”ofo|ky;] ykgkSj esa xoZuj ij xksyh pykus ds dkj.k 9 ebZ 1931 dks Qkalh nh xbZ FkhA
[4] iSarhl djksM+ mu fnuksa vfoHkkftr Hkkjr dh vkcknh FkhA “kk;j rk;j us 1998 esa bls nksckjk xkrs le; vLlh djksM+ dj fn;k FkkA

Remembering Bhagat Singh At 75 years of Martyrdom

Remembering Bhagat Singh At 75 years of Martyrdom

Chaman Lal

One of the founders of communist movement and party in India Muzafar Ahmad wrote in Bangla about his meeting with Bhagat Singh in 1926. Naujwan Bharat Sabha was formed that year and a year prior, communist party came into existence at Kanpur. Abdul Majid of Peshawar and Muzaffar Ahmed had been imprisoned in Kanpur Bolshevik conspiracy case and Bhagat Singh had came to pay his regards to Muzaffar Ahmed at the house of his co-prisoner and comrade Abdul Majid. Naujawan Bharat Sabha was a mass organization of youth formed by Bhagat Singh to expose the exploitative character of Bristish colonialism through mass meetings. Thus from the very beginning of Bhagat Singh’s active political life, his inclination towards communist movement is quite obvious. And it is not without reason that eminent historian Bipan Chandra wrote in an introduction to Bhagat Singh’s ‘ Why I am an Atheist ‘ in seventies , that ‘ During 1925 to 1928 , Bhagat Singh read voraciously, devouring in particular books on Russian revolution and Soviet Union, even though getting hold of such books was in itself at the time a revolutionary and difficult task . He also tried to inculcate the reading and thinking habit among his fellow revolutionaries and younger comrades .xxx Already by the end of 1928 , he and his comrades had accepted socialism as the final object of their activities and changed the name of their organization from Hindustan Republican Associations to HSRA’.Adding word ‘socialism’ was quite significant and the main motivation to add socialism word originated from Bhagat Singh. And it was not a vague kind of socialism, which Bhagat Singh was carrying in his mind.Bhagat Singh accepted socialism as a concept by going through books on Marxism and experiences of Soviet Union.Books on both the themes were hard to get in those days as rightly observed by Bipan Chandra.

And when Bhagat Singh landed into jail after throwing bomb with B.K Dutt in Delhi Assembly on 8th April 1929, his reading became even more organized and mature, despite the fact that in little less than two years before his execution on 23rd March 1931, Bhagat Singh not only fought against atrocities of Jail authorities by resorting to hunger strikes for weeks together, preparing to present revolutionary viewpoint in the course of trial of two cases against them- Lahore conspiracy case, which resulted in his, Sukhdev & Rajguru’s execution and Delhi Assembly bomb case, in which he and B.K Dutt were convicted and transported for life, prior to the decision of Lahore conspiracy case. And during the course of trial for many weeks, Bhagat Singh and his comrades were subjected to all kinds of police tortures and cruelties , yet the full might of British Colonialism which was arrogated so much to claim for itself that ‘Sun never sets in British empire’, could not crush the spirit of Bhagat Singh and his comrades with all its might. Sri Rajyam Sinha, widow of Bejoy Kumar Sinha in her memories of her husband and comrade of Bhagat Singh – ‘ A Revolutionary’s Quest for Sacrifice’, had given graphic details of police tortures upon revolutionaries , particularly upon Bhagat Singh, inside and outside the court. Revolutionaries had refused to come handcuffed in the court. Court had agreed to it, but did not honor its word and according to Bejoy Kumar Sinha’s notes- (on 22nd Oct 1929) ‘ obviously a scuffle began and hell was let loose. Their prestige pricked , the police was hell bent on teaching the accused the lesson of their life. A special pathan force was requisitioned and merciless beating began. Bhagat Singh was singled out for this. Eight ferocious pathans pounced on him and with their regulation boots kicked him viciously and beat him with lathis ruthlessly . Mr. Roberts, an European officer, pointed out at Sardar Bhagat Singh and said ‘ this is the man, give him more beating.’ They were dragged on the ground and carried like logs of wood and thrown on the benches. All this happened right in the presence of the visitors in the court compound . The Magistrate too was watching all this apparently thinking that he had no jurisdiction as he was not presiding over the court . Sheo (Shiv) Verma (became communist later and joined CPM after split ) and Ajoy Kumar Ghose ( rose to General Secretary of CPI later) became unconscious. Bhagat Singh then raised his voice and told the court,’ I want to congratulate you on this . Sheo Verma is lying unconscious and if he dies, you will be responsible for this.’ ( P. 45) . One is very well reminded of Abu Ghariab and Guantanamo prisons while reading this account.

And on 28th October 1929, three days later, ‘ The police authorities submitted a report with the concurrence of the jail authorities that it was possible to beat them and even kill them but it was not possible to bring them to the court handcuffed .”

Bhagat Singh, just at the age of 22 years at that time, by his towering personality terrorized the British Colonial power. British colonial power was not terrorized when Bhagat Singh was part of ‘ terrorist group’ for a brief period , Britishers were confident of dealing with terrorism . British colonialism became really terrorized when HRA turned into HSRA, Bhagat Singh became its chief ideologue and by his statements and mature political conduct in jail and court, got the masses of the country rallied behind them. By resorting to frequent hunger strikes for human and political rights for political prisoners , in which Jatin Dass, one of their dearest comrades sacrificed his life on 13th September 1929 inside Lahore Jail and lakhs and crores of Indian people gathered at all railway stations, when his mortal remains were being taken in train from Lahore to Calcutta for final journey. (The admission of popularity of Bhagat Singh and his comrades at the level of Mahatma Gandhi among Indian masses was made by none else than B.Pattabhirammaya, who wrote the history of Congress party. It is also well known that black roses were shown to Mahatma Gandhi after the execution of Bhagat Singh and his comrades in Lahore jail, by Congress workers at Kanpur session, held immediately after the hangings.)

Bhagat Singh read much more voraciously inside the jail , despite being certain that he is going to be hanged for his political actions. Even minutes before being taken to gallows, he was reading a book by Lenin, got through his advocate. Punjabi revolutionary poet Paash, who himself was martyred by Khalistani terrorists on 23rd March , his hero’s martyrdom day, paid apt tribute to Bhagat Singh in one of his prose pieces by saying ‘ Indian youth have to read the next page of Lenin’s book, left unread by Bhagat Singh at his death”.

In fact letters written from Jail by Bhagat Singh invariably refers to the list of books he wanted from his visitors to be brought from Dwarka Dass Library Lahore. These books were primarily on Marxim, Economy, History & creative literature. Thus in one his letters to Jaidev Gupta, his friend on 24th July 1930, Bhagat Singh asked for following books to be sent for him through his younger brother Kulbir -- (i) Militarism ( Karl Libeknect) (ii) Why men fight? (Bertrand Russel) (iii) Soviets at work (iv) Collapse of Second International (v) Leftwing Communism ( Lenin?) (vi) Mutual Aid ( Prince Kroptokin ) (vii) Field, Factories and Workshops (viii) Civil war in France (Marx) (ix) Land Revolution in Russia (x) Punjab Peasants in prosperity and Debt ( Darling) (xi) Historical Materialism ( Bukharin ) (xii) Spy (Upton Sinclair – Novel)

Bhagat Singh had command over four languages , without much formal training or education – He wrote in Punjabi , Hindi , Urdu and English . His jail Note book an ordinary copy of a school student is just the jotting down of notes taken from the books- mentioning one hundred and eight authors and 43 books including—Karl Marx-‘On Religion’, Engles – ‘ Socialism : Utopian and Scientific’ and ‘ Origin of Family, Private Property and the State’, Thomas Paine-‘Rights of Man’, Jean Jacques Rousseau’s ‘ Emile ‘ & ‘Social Contract’, Rene Descartes’ ‘ Discourse on Matter’, Machiavelli’s , The Prince’, Spinoza’s’ Tractates : Politics, Micheal O’Dwyer’s ‘ India As I Know it’. Authors referred without the title of books, but with quotations from unnamed books include – Lord Byron, Umar Khyyam, Mark Twain , John Stuart Mill, Henric Ibsen, Thomas Jefferson , Wordsworth, Tennyson , Chares Fourier, Rabinder Nath Tagore, Karl Kautsky , Trotsky, Thomas Carlye, Dostoevsky, Edmund Burke, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Epicures, Seneca, Francis Bacon, John Locke, John Milton, Mahatma Gandhi, Madan Mohan Malviya , Bipan Chander Pal, Valentine Chirol , apart from references to two reports – Montford report & Simon report. Does it not sound like Encyclopedic range ? Do even the most well read students of University like JNU, have such range of reading ( and contemplation )at the age of 23 years , even when the internet has opened all range of human knowledge at the click of a mouse ?(The only original comments along with notes on books in the jail notebook are on the subject-The Science of State-.Bhagat Singh was probably planning a book on the history of political development of society-From Primitive Communism to modern Socialism.)

How was it possible , it was because of Bhagat Singh’s sincerity and commitment, his total devotion to the Country and its people . Can you find any such examples else where in India or abroad? The only name comes closer is that of Che Guevera , who was as committed and as much devoted and who faced death with as much courage as Bhagat Singh faced . Leaving away the comforts of being a Minister in newly liberated Cuba, Che Guevera took to jungles of Bolivia to fight U.S imperialism to liberate the whole of Latin America , a true internationalist revolutionary , crossing the boundaries of nationalism in most healthy and positive manner. Che Guevra was much more advanced in thought than Bhagat Singh as the conditions of two were different . Revolution had won at many places by then and revolutionary ideology and literature also reached far beyond the boundaries of nations by that time , yet the quality of spirit , quality of commitment for revolution, quality of sincerity , brings both these young revolutionaries close to each other, as close as Marx and Engles were to each other. Che and Bhagat Singh, in spite of gap of years, in spite of gap of geographical boundaries are the most unified symbol of revolutionary struggle against imperialism and capitalist exploitation of mankind. Both fought against it ferociously and both sacrificed their life with the fullest awareness of it that they are dyeing for a cause much dearer to them than their own life.

In last meeting with his comrade and co-prisoner in Lahore conspiracy case, Jaidev, before his execution , Bhagat Singh told’,’If by sacrificing my life. I am able to spread the slogan ‘ Inqulab Zindabad’ all over the country , I shall consider myself to be fully rewarded – Today I can very well hear crores of my countrymen shouting the slogan even while I am confined behind the thick walls of my death call …. I trust this slogan would continue to inspire our liberation struggle against imperialism ( ‘ Sansmirityan’ ( Hindi) by Shiv Verma)

Bhagat Singh clarified his concept of ‘ Revolution ‘ in a statement to court in Delhi Assembly Bomb Case—‘ By ‘ Revolution’ we mean the present order of things, which is based on manifest injustice must change.” They wanted to build a system “ in which the sovereignty of the proletariat should be recognized and world federation should redeem humanity from the bondage of Capitalism and misery of Imperial wars”. ‘ ( From statement of 6th June 1929)

In a letter to Punjab Governor on 20th March 1931, three days before his execution , Bhagat Singh wrote- ‘ Let us declare that the

State of war does exist and shall exist till so long as the Indian toiling masses and the natural resources are being exploited by a handful of parasites. They may be purely British Capitalist or mixed British and Indian or even purely Indian. They may be carrying on their insidious exploitation through mixed or even a purely Indian bureaucratic apparatus . All these things make no difference. No matter, if your Government tries and succeeds in winning over the leaders of the Indian society through petty concessions and compromises and thereby cause a temporary demoralization in the main body of forces. No matter, if once again of Indian movement, the Revolutionary party, finds itself deserted in the thick of the war.’

Bhagat Singh further asserted –‘The war shall continue. xx.. It shall be waged ever with new vigor, greater audacity and unflinching determination till the Socialist Republic is established and the present social order is completely replaced by a new social order, based on social prosperity and thus every sort of exploitation is put an end to and the humanity is ushered into the era of genuine and permanent peace’. Xxx……

Bhagat Singh declared-‘The days of capitalist and imperialist exploitation are numbered. The war neither began with us nor is going to end with our lives. It is the inevitable consequence of historical events and the existing environments. Our humble sacrifices shall only be a link in the chain that has very accurately been beautified by the unparalleled sacrifice of Mr. Das and most tragic but noblest sacrifice of Comrade Bhagwati Charn and the glorious death of our warrior Azad.

Netaji Subhash Bose in big public meeting in Delhi on same day ( 20th March) said ‘ Bhagat Singh is today not a person , but a symbol. He symbolizes the spirit of revolt, which has taken possession of country.’

And ‘ Free Press Journal ‘ in its issue of 24th March 1931 wrote-

‘ S. Bhagat Singh , Rajguru and Sukhdev live no longer. In their death lies their victory let there be no mistaking it. The bureaucracy has annihilated the mortal frame. The nation has assimilated the immortal spirit . Thus shall Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev live eternally to the dismay of the bureaucracy ….. To the nation, S. Bhagat Singh and Colleagues will even remain the symbols of martyrdom in the cause of freedom.

Reading Bhagat Singh’s jail note book and court statements, it seems as if we are going through today’s reality . Replace the word ‘ British’ with ‘ American’ and the stark reality is much darker than in 1931 . Bhagat Singh was too clear about Indian leadership as such and today’s Indian rulers fit into the category of those ‘ Pure Indians’, who are being won through ‘ Petty concessions’ by American imperialism , but in the words of Bhagat Singh – ‘ The war shall continue’, which neither began with them and which has not ended with their lives.

The lives of Bhagat Singh , Che- Guevera have been sacrificed in the fight against imperialism , but these are not the lives lost. These are the lives which haunt imperialism- even decades after their death. Che Guevera, Allende could haunt America in today’s Boliva and Chile and the same way Bhagat Singh will keep on haunting Bushs & Blairs and the other new avtars of British colonialism of 1930’s.

Bipan Chandra has rightly concluded that Bhagat Singh had ‘ clearly emerged as revolutionary fully committed to Marxism and capable of applying it with the full complexity of its method’, adding the words that even in embracing death, he applied these methods correctly. Bipan Chandra also concludes that ‘ it is one of the greatest tragedies of our people that this giant of a brain was brought to a stop so early by the colonial authorities ‘. Yet it is tragedy of our people but, it is the nature of colonialism and imperialism to cause such tragedies , be in India or Vietnam, in Iraq, Palestine or Latin America. But the people do avenge these by more ferocious struggles against imperialism , If not today , then tomorrow .

Prof. Chaman Lal

Centre of Indian Languages(SLLCS)

JNU,New Delhi-110067


(Complete documents of Bhagat Singh in Hindi)

letters of bhagat singh

Letters of Bhagat Singh-1

1.Letter to grandfather Arjun Singh in Urdu on 27-7-1919 on post card*


Respected Dada Ji, namaste

I state humbly that I am well and wish your well being from Shri Narayan ji. The state of affairs here is that our six monthly exams. Are over, which started in July. Many boys failed in Maths., so the math. Exam will be held again on 9th August. Everything else is fine. When are you coming. Tell Bhayia ji(father) that I have cleared all papers in six monthly examinations. Namaste to Mataji(mother) chachi(aunt),elder aunt.Kultar Singh(younger brother) had fever on 24th night and 25th july evening. Now he is o.k.Do not worry about anything.

Yours obediently

Bhagat Singh

  • Note of Translator(Chaman Lal)
  • This is second letter of Bhagat Singh to his grandfather, which is now available. First available letter of Bhagat Singh is also written to his grandfather in Urdu only.Bhagat Singh’s handwriting is available in three languages- Urdu, Punjabi and English. He was prolific writer in Hindi too.

Unpublished letters of Bhagat Singh

Chaman Lal*

  1. Letter to aunt Hukam Kaur,widow of uncle Swarn Singh, in Punjabi language on 24.10.1921( On Post Card)**

1 Omkar


My Dear Aunt(Chachi ji)


I had gone to attend a rally to Lyalpur. I wanted to come to village, but Bapuji(Father) did not allow, so I could not come to village. Please forgive me, if I did any wrong. Portrait of Chacha Ji(Uncle Swarn Singh) is ready. I wanted to bring it along, but it was not complete then, so please forgive me. Kindly reply early. My reverence to elder aunt. My reverence to mother. Namaste to Kulbir and Kultar(younger brothers).

Your son

Bhagat Singh

**Translator’s(Chaman Lal) note:

This letter was written by Bhagat Singh at the age of fourteen years to his younger aunt in Punjabi. Bhagat Singh had learnt Punjabi language in 1921 by his own efforts, inspired by Nankana Sahib Morcha, the volunteers of which passed through his village and Bhagat Singh used to serve food(langar) to them. He was not taught Punjabi in school, where he had good command over Urdu, which was the medium of instruction in those days.

Unpublished letters of Bhagat Singh

Chaman Lal*

  1. Letter to aunt Hukam Kaur,widow of uncle Swarn Singh, in Punjabi language on 24.10.1921( On Post Card)**

1 Omkar


My Dear Aunt(Chachi ji)


I had gone to attend a rally to Lyalpur. I wanted to come to village, but Bapuji(Father) did not allow, so I could not come to village. Please forgive me, if I did any wrong. Portrait of Chacha Ji(Uncle Swarn Singh) is ready. I wanted to bring it along, but it was not complete then, so please forgive me. Kindly reply early. My reverence to elder aunt. My reverence to mother. Namaste to Kulbir and Kultar(younger brothers).

Your son

Bhagat Singh

**Translator’s(Chaman Lal) note:

This letter was written by Bhagat Singh at the age of fourteen years to his younger aunt in Punjabi. Bhagat Singh had learnt Punjabi language in 1921 by his own efforts, inspired by Nankana Sahib Morcha, the volunteers of which passed through his village and Bhagat Singh used to serve food(langar) to them. He was not taught Punjabi in school, where he had good command over Urdu, which was the medium of instruction in those days.

Letters of Bhagat Singh-4*

This letter was written to close personal friend by Bhagat Singh on post card in English, which has stamp of Lahore post office of 24th February 1930. This letter is also self explanatory.(Chaman Lal)

Very Urgent { No. 103 Central Jail condemned Cell } Lahore


My Dear Jai Deo!

I hope you would have heard of our abandoning the fast after 16 days, and you can guess how greatly do we feel the necessity of your help at this stage. We received a few oranges yesterday but no interview was held. Our case has been adjourned for a fortnight. Therefore kindly arrange to send a tin of ‘ Craven Cigarettes - A’ and a tin of ghee immediately. And a few oranges alongwith a few rasgullas will also be welcomed. Mr. Dutta is facing hard times without cigarettes. Now you can understand the urgent nature of our needs.

Thanking you in advance.

Yours Sincerely

Bhagat Singh

Address—To, Mr. Jai Deo Prasad Gupta,c/o The provincial Congress committee

Bradlaugh Hall, Lahore

* All underlines by Bhagat Singh

Letters of Bhagat Singh-5

This letter is also written to Jaidev Gupta on 26th May 1930 in English. The stamp of Lahore post office is of 28/5/1930 on post card. This letter also needs to explanation. (Chaman Lal)

937 D/ Lahore Central Jail

26/5/30(jail no.) Lahore

Dear Brother Jai deo,

Today again I am writing this letter to give you some trouble which I hope you will not mind. Please see if you can arrange to send one fleet foot shoe for me. I think No. 9-10 will do. Chapli is too uncomfortable. Also please try to send it on Friday or Saturday through kulbir when he will be coming for an interview. Really it is very sad that I have not so far been allowed any interview with you. Had this impasse in our trial not occurred I will have repeatedly reminded the authorities to sanction your interview. Anyhow by the time this question is settled I will again try to get the interview sanctioned. Well I hope you will send the shoe without fail and without delay. These days I have got only one book with me—a very dry one. Please see if you can send a couple of recent interesting novels. Please remember me to all friends.

Yours Sincerely

D/ 26/5/30 Bhagat Singh

Address--- Mr. jai Deo Prasad Gupta c/o S. Kishan Singh

Bradlaugh Hall, Lahore